REM Citation Guidelines

Citation Style Guide for UI Rangeland Papers

Formatting Literature Cited

This guide suggests a format to cite literature in documents prepared for classes in Rangeland Ecology and Management. This format is based on APA style with 2 exceptions:

  1. Do not list page where information if found in source.
  2. List articles by Author and Year not by number.

For more information about citing sources by APA format visit the Online Writing Center or the University of Idaho Library guide

The following are examples of what an appropriately cited source using APA format.  Note that there are several computer tools where you can enter information about the source and a reference in APA style will be generated. These include:

Do NOT use Class Notes as sources for papers. Class notes are basically unpublished and unreviewed sources. They may be great for personal learning, but they are of little or no value for technical writing.


The following are examples of appropriately cited source using APA format:

Journal Article

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pp-pp.

  • Adler, P., Raff, D., & Lauenroth, W. (2001). The effect of grazing on the spatial heterogeneity of vegetation. Oecologia, 128(4), 465-479.
  • Breckenridge, R. P., Dakins, M., Bunting, S., Harbour, J. L., & White, S. (2011). Comparison of unmanned aerial vehicle platforms for assessing vegetation cover in sagebrush steppe ecosystems. Rangeland Ecology & Management, 64(5), 521-532.
  • Strand, E. K., Vierling, L. A., & Bunting, S. C. (2009). A spatially explicit model to predict future landscape composition of aspen woodlands under various management scenarios. Ecological Modelling, 220(2), 175-191.

DOI can be added if known, but do not add URL from JSTOR or other electronic repository.

Article from a Webpage

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year published). Title of article. Retrieved from http://www.xxx.xxxxx

Unknown Author, Unknown Date

NOTE: Web pages can be very informative, but are generally poor sources because they can change at any minute.  Avoid using web pages unless they are published by very reputable sources and appear to be stable sources that are not changing rapidly.

Books & Book Chapters

Book, Printed Version

Author, A. A. (1967). Title of work in italics. Location: Publisher.

  • Cheney, P., & Sullivan, A. (Eds.). (2008). Grassfires: fuel, weather and fire behaviour. Collingwood, Victoria, Australia: CSIRO Publishing.
  • Hitchcock, C.L., & Cronquist, A. (1973). Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press.

Book, Electronic Version

Author, A. A. (1997). Title of work italicized. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxx

Book, other than 1st edition

Author, A. A. (1967). Title of work (#th ed.). Location: Publisher.

  • Smith R.L. 1974. Ecology and Field Biology. (1974). Ecology and Field Biology (2nd ed.). New York:Harper & Row Publishing.

Book Chapter

Author, A. A. (1967). Title of chapter. In A. A. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book. (pp. ##-##). Location: Publisher.

  • Frost, P. G. H., & Robertson, F. (1987). The ecological effects of fire in savannas. In B. H. Walker (Ed.), Determinants of tropical savannas (pp. 93–141). Paris, France: International Union of Biological Science.
  • Severson, K.E. (1981). Plains habitats, p. 459-485. In: O.C. Wallmo (Ed.), Mule and black-tailed deer of North America. (pp. 459-485). Lincoln NE: University of Nebraska Press.

Government Documents: Technical Report or Experiment Station Bulletin

Author, A.A. (1998). Title of work (Report No. xxx). Location: Publisher.

  • Cleaves, D. A., Martinez, J., & Haines, T. K. (2000). Influences on prescribed burning activity and costs in the National Forest System (General Technical Report No. 37). Asheville, NC: USDA, Forest Service, Southern Research Station.
  • Keegan, C.E. III, Gebert, K., Shook, S.R., Wagner, F.G. & Blatner, K. (2001). Idaho’s Wood Products Industry: Current Conditions and Forecast – 2001, (Exp. Sta. Bull. 75), Moscow, ID: Idaho Forest, Wildlife and Range Experiment Station.
  • National Institute of Mental Health. (1981). Depression disorders: Causes and treatment (DHHS Publication No. ADM 81-1081). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
  • National Research Council. (1977). Nutrient requirements of poultry. Seventh edition. Washington, DC: National Academy of Science.

Dissertation or Thesis

Author. (year). Title in italics. (Doctoral dissertation or Master’s thesis). Name of University, city, state, country. Web address if available.

  • Schmelzer, L. (2009). Reducing fuel load of key cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) dominated range sites by the use of fall cattle grazing (Master’s Thesis). University of Nevada, Reno, NV, USA.

Interviews, Email, and Other Personal Communication

No personal communication is included in the reference list. Information gained in an e-mail or interview is referenced in the text; parenthetically cite the person’s name, the phrase “personal communication,” and the date of the communication in the body of the document.

  • (N. Rimbey, personal communication, June 15, 2015).
  • Dr. Neil Rimbey, stated that the cost of grazing on federal lands includes both permit and non-permit costs (personal communication, June 15, 2015).

NOTE: Personal communications are generally not a good source because it is difficult for the reader to examine the credibility of your data. Avoid “Personal Communications” as much as possible.

Class Notes

Do NOT use Class Notes as sources for papers. Class notes are basically unpublished and unreviewed sources. They may be great for personal learning, but they are of little or no value for technical writing.

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